Allotment in IPO: Definition, Role, and Importance

In the context of an initial public offering (IPO), Allotment signifies the allocation of shares to investors who have subscribed to the offering.

In the thrilling world of initial public offerings (IPOs), the term “Allotment” carries significant weight. It’s the pivotal stage where investors discover how many shares they will be granted from the IPO’s pool of offerings. Understanding IPO Allotment is crucial for both seasoned and novice investors, as it demystifies the process of securing shares in a newly public company. In this article, we’ll delve into the concept of Allotment in the context of an IPO, explore its intricacies, and reveal the factors that influence this critical phase.

Definition of Allotment in IPO

Allotment in an IPO refers to the allocation of shares to investors who have subscribed to the offering. It is the culmination of the subscription process, where investors express their interest in buying shares at the IPO price. The number of shares allotted to each investor depends on several factors, including demand, the size of the offering, and regulatory guidelines.

The Allotment Process

Expression of Interest: Investors express their interest in the IPO by specifying the number of shares they wish to purchase and the price they are willing to pay. This is done through intermediaries like brokerage firms.

Allotment Calculation: The company, along with the underwriters, calculates how many shares are available for allocation after considering the demand from various investors.

Allocation Rules: Allocation rules vary based on regulatory requirements and the IPO’s structure. Some IPOs favor institutional investors, while others may give priority to retail investors.

Distribution: Once the allotment is determined, shares are distributed to investors. The allocation process can be oversubscribed, leading to pro-rata allotment, or in some cases, some investors may not receive any shares.

Significance of Allotment

Investor Participation: Allotment is the culmination of the subscription process, allowing investors to become shareholders in the newly public company.

Share Ownership: It defines how many shares an investor will own in the company post-IPO, impacting their stake and potential dividends.

Price Lock: Allotment typically locks in the IPO price for investors, protecting them from potential price fluctuations after listing.

Factors Influencing Allotment

Demand: The number of shares allotted depends on the demand from investors. Oversubscribed IPOs may lead to pro-rata allotment.

IPO Size: The total number of shares offered in the IPO affects allotment. Larger offerings may have more shares available for allocation.

Regulatory Requirements: Some jurisdictions have specific rules governing IPO allotment to ensure fair and equitable distribution.

Post-Allotment Considerations

Confirmation: Investors receive confirmation of their allotment, detailing the number of shares they’ve been allocated.

Listing Date: After allotment, shares become tradable on the stock exchange on the IPO’s listing date.


IPO Allotment is a critical phase in the IPO journey, determining how many shares investors will secure in the newly public company. It’s the moment when expressions of interest are transformed into concrete share ownership. Understanding the factors that influence allotment empowers investors to navigate the intricate process of securing shares in an IPO. Whether it’s a highly sought-after oversubscribed offering or a meticulously planned institutional allocation, IPO Allotment demystifies the path to becoming a shareholder in a company’s exciting new chapter in the public markets.